DUE-DILIGENCE IN BIBLE ACCEPTANCE / STUDY- A HORRIBLE DISCREPANCY IN UNDERLYING TEXTS OF PSALM 22:16

Psalm 22:16, is a great Messianic, Old Testament text, from God, and penned by King David of Israel.  King David was also a prophet.  He lived about 1000BC.

It is loved and greatly valued by Bible believers, because in the Greek text, it so plainly predicts, in detail, the crucifixion death of the Messiah Jesus Christ.

In English Psalm 22:16, based on the Greek text (Lxx, or Septuagint) says:

For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet.

The last phrase, especially in the context of the passage (shown later) is detailed prophecy of Christ's Crucifixion. This is great confirmation of the divine inspiration of the bible and also of course, of authenticity of Jesus Christ's Messiah-ship.

Disturbing for us believers, is that the Hebrew (Masoretic) text, as shown in the margin, or footnotes, in many modern bibles says:

For dogs have encircled me, an evil congregation surrounded me; like a lion my hands and my feet.

Obviously, here, the passage is badly garbled and nonsensical.

Most critically, the great testimony to the divine inspiration of Scripture in the matching of prophecy and fulfillment, is ruined, and the great support for the Messianic authenticity of Jesus Christ is damaged.

Also very disturbing is that commentaries I looked at took the attitude, "Oh well, I guess we are at a dead end, we will never resolve which text is correct."

I immediately prayed to God on the basis of his great promise in the New Testament at 1 John 5:14,15:

And this is the confidence that we have in him, that, if we ask any thing according to his will, he heareth us:

And if we know that he hear us, whatsoever we ask, we know that we have the petitions that we desired of him.

I explain at several of my other web pages, such as my Bragging Rights page, that God has given me great insight into using this promise.  My Image of God page is another place, under the heading "Methodology."

Several key points here:  The "we" means believers in Jesus Christ.  The phrase "according to his will," means we must be sure that the objective we seek is within his will,

AND ALSO, that, if we are asking a question, we must accept God's answer, in advance, not knowing what it will be, and also, whether we will like it or not. Otherwise the promise will not work.

God must see, that in our heart, we will embrace his answer, in advance, whether we like his answer on not.

This is all part of asking "according to his will."

This promise is usually off-limits to professional religious workers -- because God's answers are often at odds with their theologies, and they would get fired if they embraced God's answer.

God made good for me -- his answer was simple -- do an Internet search for Psalm 22:16.

So I "Googled" (web searched) for "Psalm 22:16."

I soon found Tim Hegg's page http://www.torahresource.com/EnglishArticles/Ps22.16.pdf --

An outstanding work of scholarship by Tim Hegg - showing beyond a doubt, that the text reading "they pierced my hands and my feet" is the true and correct reading.

I do have Tim Hegg's permission to discuss his article here.

He solves the problem by locating a PRE-CHRISTIAN -- HEBREW-- text of Psalm 22:16 -- AS APPOSED TO THE POST-CHRISTIAN TEXT --THE MASORETIC HEBREW TEXT

THIS PRE/POST FACTOR IS ABSOLUTELY CRITICAL IN MAKING THIS DETERMINATION.

He then employs outstanding scholarship to complete his proof.

Later in this paper I give some information on the Septuagint (Lxx)Greek and Masoretic Hebrew texts.

His paper is a little techical, but very much worth reading.  Its only two pages.

Please, use this link to Tim Hegg's article, Studies in the Biblical Text.

God made good, to me, on his promise in 1 John 5, and gave me the very thrilling, reassuring, answer.

The answer IS that the GREEK, SEPTUAGINT, LXX text and the PRE-CHRISTIAN HEBREW stand together in the reading "they pierced my hands and my feet" in Psalm 22:16.

We may rest fully assured that Psalm 22 is authentic messianic prophesy fulfilled by God in Jesus Christ at his crucifixion.

WE ABSOLUTELY SHOULD NOT SETTLE FOR THE COMMENTATOR'S VIEWS THAT WE ARE AT A DEAD END IN THESE SITUATIONS -- THAT WE CANNOT SOLVE THE BIBLE TEXT PROBLEMS!

GOD IS READY, WILLING, AND ABLE!

JESUS SAID IN MATTHEW 4:4:

But he (JESUS) answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.

"EVERY MEANS ALL, NOT JUST MOST OF IT!

I also should say, that God would not make good on his 1 John 5 promise if I were not one of the "we" -- that is one of his people.

This is immensely wonderful.

God will receive any person who comes to Jesus Christ believing.  God adopts that person as one of his own children.

See my pages - They Came to Jesus! or Jesus Gets a Visitor in the Night!

I include, below, the whole text of this great Psalm 22, of God, through King David, below:

1My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? why art thou so far from helping me, and from the words of my roaring?

2O my God, I cry in the day time, but thou hearest not; and in the night season, and am not silent.

3But thou art holy, O thou that inhabitest the praises of Israel.

4Our fathers trusted in thee: they trusted, and thou didst deliver them.

5They cried unto thee, and were delivered: they trusted in thee, and were not confounded.

6But I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of the people.

7All they that see me laugh me to scorn: they shoot out the lip, they shake the head, saying,

8He trusted on the LORD that he would deliver him: let him deliver him, seeing he delighted in him.

9But thou art he that took me out of the womb: thou didst make me hope when I was upon my mother's breasts.

10I was cast upon thee from the womb: thou art my God from my mother's belly.

11Be not far from me; for trouble is near; for there is none to help.

12Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round.

13They gaped upon me with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring lion.

14I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint: my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels.

15My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and thou hast brought me into the dust of death.

16For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet.

17I may tell all my bones: they look and stare upon me.

18They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture.

19But be not thou far from me, O LORD: O my strength, haste thee to help me.

20Deliver my soul from the sword; my darling from the power of the dog.

21Save me from the lion's mouth: for thou hast heard me from the horns of the unicorns.

22I will declare thy name unto my brethren: in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.

23Ye that fear the LORD, praise him; all ye the seed of Jacob, glorify him; and fear him, all ye the seed of Israel.

24For he hath not despised nor abhorred the affliction of the afflicted; neither hath he hid his face from him; but when he cried unto him, he heard.

25My praise shall be of thee in the great congregation: I will pay my vows before them that fear him.

26The meek shall eat and be satisfied: they shall praise the LORD that seek him: your heart shall live for ever.

27All the ends of the world shall remember and turn unto the LORD: and all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before thee.

28For the kingdom is the LORD's: and he is the governor among the nations.

29All they that be fat upon earth shall eat and worship: all they that go down to the dust shall bow before him: and none can keep alive his own soul.

30A seed shall serve him; it shall be accounted to the Lord for a generation.

31They shall come, and shall declare his righteousness unto a people that shall be born, that he hath done this.

The JFB commentary (link below) may be consulted for an exposition on Psalm 22:

## Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

### Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset, and David Brown   ---  1871

Below is background information from Wikipeda:

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septuagint (part of their article):
The Septuagint (pronounced /ˈsɛptuː.ədʒɪnt/), or simply "LXX", referred to in critical works by the abbreviation $\mathfrak{G}$,[1] is the Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, translated in stages between the 3rd and 2nd century BCE in Alexandria.[2] It was begun by the 3rd century BCE and completed before 132 BCE.[3]

It is the oldest of several ancient translations of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, lingua franca of the eastern Mediterranean Basin from the time of Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE).

The Septuagint was held in great respect in ancient times; Philo and Josephus ascribed divine inspiration to its authors.[4] Besides the Old Latin versions, the LXX is also the basis for the Slavonic, the Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Old Testament.[5] Of significance for all Christians and for Bible scholars, the LXX is quoted by the New Testament and by the Apostolic Fathers.

Jewish scholars first translated the Torah into Koine Greek in the 3rd century BCE.[6][7] According to the record in the Talmud,

'King Ptolemy once gathered 72 Elders. He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one, without revealing to them why they were summoned. He entered each one's room and said: "Write for me the Torah of Moshe, your teacher." God put it in the heart of each one to translate identically as all the others did.'[8]

Further books were translated over the next two centuries. It is not altogether clear which was translated when, or where; some may even have been translated twice, into different versions, and then revised.[9]

The quality and style of the different translators also varied considerably from book to book, from the literal to paraphrasing to interpretative.

As the work of translation progressed gradually, and new books were added to the collection, the compass of the Greek Bible came to be somewhat indefinite. The Pentateuch always maintained its pre-eminence as the basis of the canon; but the prophetic collection (out of which the Nevi'im were selected) changed its aspect by having various hagiographa incorporated into it.

Some of the newer works, those called anagignoskomena in Greek, are not included in the Jewish canon. Among these books are Maccabees and the Wisdom of Ben Sira. Also, the Septuagint version of some works, like Daniel and Esther, are longer than those in the Masoretic Text.[10] Some of the later books (Wisdom of Solomon, 2 Maccabees, and others) apparently were not translated, but composed in Greek.

The authority of the larger group of "writings", out of which the ketuvim were selected, had not yet been determined, although some sort of selective process must have been employed because the Septuagint did not include other well-known Jewish documents such as Enoch or Jubilees or other writings that are now part of the Pseudepigrapha. It is not known what principles were used to determine the contents of the Septuagint beyond the "Law and the Prophets", a phrase used several times in the New Testament.

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masoretic_Text  (part of their article)

The Masoretic Text (MT, ��, or $\mathfrak{M}$) is the authoritative Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible regarded almost universally as the official version of the Tanakh.[citation needed] It defines not just the books of the Jewish canon, but also the precise letter-text of the biblical books in Judaism, as well as their vocalization and accentuation known as the Masorah.

The MT is also widely used as the basis for translations of the Old Testament in Protestant Bibles, and in recent years (since 1943) also for some Catholic Bibles.[1] In modern times the Dead Sea Scrolls have shown the MT to be nearly identical to some texts of the Tanakh dating from 200 BCE but different from others.

The MT was primarily copied, edited and distributed by a group of Jews known as the Masoretes between the 7th and 10th centuries CE. Though the consonants differ little from the text generally accepted in the early 2nd century (and also differ little from some Qumran texts that are even older), it has numerous differences of both greater and lesser significance when compared to (extant 4th century) manuscripts of the Septuagint, a Greek translation (made in the 3rd to 2nd centuries BCE) of the Hebrew Scriptures that was in popular use in Egypt and Palestine and that is believed by scholars[2] to be the source often quoted in the New Testament.

The Hebrew word mesorah (מסורה, alt. מסורת) refers to the transmission of a tradition. In a very broad sense it can refer to the entire chain of Jewish tradition (see Oral law), but in reference to the Masoretic Text the word mesorah has a very specific meaning: the diacritic markings of the text of the Hebrew Bible and concise marginal notes in manuscripts (and later printings) of the Hebrew Bible which note textual details, usually about the precise spelling of words.

The oldest extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text date from approximately the 9th century AD,[3] and the Aleppo Codex (once the oldest complete copy of the Masoretic Text, but now missing its Torah section) dates from the 10th century.

The Talmud (and also Karaite mss.) states that a standard copy of the Hebrew Bible was kept in the court of the Temple in Jerusalem for the benefit of copyists; there were paid correctors of Biblical books among the officers of the Temple (Talmud, tractate Ketubot 106a).

This copy is mentioned in the Aristeas Letter (§ 30; comp. Blau, Studien zum Althebr. Buchwesen, p. 100); in the statements of Philo (preamble to his "Analysis of the Political Constitution of the Jews") and in Josephus (Contra Ap. i. 8).

Another Talmudic story, perhaps referring to an earlier time, relates that three Torah scrolls were found in the Temple court but were at variance with each other. The differences were then resolved by majority decision among the three.

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