The leading theory, Giant Impact Hypothesis, is, of course, in great dispute between
naturalistically and supernaturalistically, leaning people. I give them both in that order, below.
I quote wikipedia below:
"Several mechanisms have been proposed for the Moon's
formation 4.527 ± 0.010 billion years ago,some 30–50 million
years after the origin of the Solar System.
These include the fission of the Moon from the Earth's crust through centrifugal
forces, which would require too great an initial spin of the Earth,the gravitational capture of a pre-formed
Moon, which would require an unfeasibly extended atmosphere of the Earth to dissipate the energy of the passing Moon, and
the co-formation of the Earth and the Moon together in the primordial accretion disk, which does not explain the depletion
of metallic iron in the Moon.
These hypotheses also cannot account for the high angular momentum of the Earth–Moon
The prevailing hypothesis today is that the Earth–Moon system formed as a result of a giant impact: a
Mars-sized body hit the nearly formed proto-Earth, blasting material into orbit around the proto-Earth, which accreted to
form the Moon.
Giant impacts are thought to have been common in the early Solar System. Computer simulations modelling
a giant impact are consistent with measurements of the angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system, and the small size
of the lunar core; they also show that most of the Moon came from the impactor, not from the proto-Earth.
meteorites show that other inner Solar System bodies such as Mars and Vesta have very different oxygen and tungsten isotopic
compositions to the Earth, while the Earth and Moon have near-identical isotopic compositions. Post-impact mixing of the vaporized
material between the forming Earth and Moon could have equalized their isotopic compositions, although this is debated.
large amount of energy released in the giant impact event and the subsequent reaccretion of material in Earth orbit would
have melted the outer shell of the Earth, forming a magma ocean. The newly formed Moon would also have had its own lunar magma
ocean; estimates for its depth range from about 500 km to the entire radius of the Moon.
An exoplanetary system
has been discovered in which two planets share the same orbit. Such co-orbital planets are thought to be the origin of the
impact that produced the Earth-Moon system because models suggest the collision was low-speed"
"Evolutionary astronomers have great trouble accounting for the origin of the moon. There have
generally been three competing hypotheses, but they all have serious physical problems:
theory, invented by the astronomer George Darwin (son of Charles). He proposed that the earth spun so fast that a
chunk broke off, with the Pacific Ocean as the probable scar (or a modification of the theory that had the earth molten at
the time). But this theory is universally discarded today.
First, the moon is too chemically
different from the earth; second, the earth could never have spun fast enough to throw a moon into orbit; and third, the escaping
moon would have been shattered while within the Roche Limit.
Capture theory —
the moon was wandering through the solar system, and was captured by Earth’s gravity. But for one approaching body to
enter into orbit around another, it would need to lose a lot of energy, which is why spacecraft sent to orbit other planets
are designed with retro-rockets.
Otherwise the approaching body would have been ‘slingshotted’
rather than captured, a phenomenon the Voyager probes exploited. Finally, even a successful capture would have resulted
in an elongated comet-like orbit.
Condensation (or co-creation) theory —
earth and moon formed at about the same time from the same portion of the swarm of planetesimals which supposedly orbited
the sun in the early phases of the evolution of the solar system. However, it’s unlikely that the gravitational attraction
could have been strong enough, and it doesn’t account for the moon’s low iron content.
evolutionary astronomer Lissauer affirms that these three theories have insoluble problems. He even cited an only half-joking
statement in a university astronomy class about 20 years ago by Irwin Shapiro: since there were no good (naturalistic) explanations,
the best explanation is that the moon is an illusion!
This counts as strong evidence for the
moon’s special creation.
Lissauer’s article was actually commenting on a paper supporting
what evolutionary scientists consider a fourth promising hypothesis for the origin of the moon, developed during the past
It is called the Giant Impact Hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that
the proto-Earth and a Mars-sized protoplanet had a glancing collision 4.5 billion years ago. The moon subsequently formed
from the ejecta.
A variant of the hypothesis, the Impact-triggered Fission Hypothesis,
propounds that, instead of one giant impactor, the moon formed from the debris of multiple impacts of smaller planetesimals.
However, recent dynamical and geochemical analyses call the Giant Impact Hypothesis into question.
Computer models have been constructed to simulate such a giant impact.
Although such computer
models are simplified and depend too much on initial conditions, the results have strained the hypothesis to the breaking
point. One of the new dynamical results is that the debris from the collision would rain back down onto Earth instead
of remaining in orbit and forming the moon.
To hurl the debris far enough from the
earth, the impactor would need to be three times the size of Mars. The results of such a collision are hard to understand,
much less model.
And if the moon did form after such a collision, the orbit would likely be unstable
with a distance of only 14,000 miles above the earth and circling it every two hours.
also noted the unsolved problem of losing the excess angular momentum.
Planetary scientists are
trying to work through all the dynamical problems to patch up this hypothesis by employing multiple computer simulations.
Of course, multiple computer attempts with different initial conditions and physics are bound to come up with something
But, some researchers are skeptical that such computer models are realistic:‘However,
Jay Melosh (University of Arizona) argued that we do not know the equations of state well enough to calculate the energy of
such an impact and that we may have grossly underestimated them, to the point that specific dynamic models are currently unjustified.’
In spite of a growing consensus in favor of the Giant Impact Hypothesis, some workers remain
skeptical on both dynamical and geochemical grounds. Ruzicka, Snyder and Taylor reviewed the geochemical data, especially
the diagnostic elements of Ni, Co, Cr, V, and Mn.
These elements have been used to argue in favor
of the Giant Impact Hypothesis, but these researchers, after reviewing observed data from the moon and meteorites, conclude
‘... that there is no strong geochemical support for either the Giant Impact or Impact-triggered Fission hypotheses.’
Much of the geochemical support for the hypothesis was based on genitive models, which of course are simplified with
too few variables. It is the observed data that call these hypotheses into question.
also add that the reason the Giant Impact Hypothesis has become popular lately is because other hypotheses don’t work:‘This
[hypothesis] has arisen not so much because of the merits of [its] theory as because of the apparent dynamical or geochemical
short-comings of others.
Planetary scientists won’t give up. They must have a naturalistic
hypothesis for all origins, including the moon’s, so will believe almost any hypothesis to fill the void. In regard
to the moon and despite a long history of theorizing, ‘The origin of the Moon is still unresolved.’
The idea that the moon was specially created ex nihilo (by God, out of nothing) at its present distance and
in its present orbit some 6,000 years ago is still the most reasonable explanation for its origin."
Wikipedia says there are 19 named satellites in the Solar system, and even 167 to 335 in all. The
very stringent origin requirements would apply to ALL, not just our Moon! This argues overwhelmingly for Special Creation!
There are orbiting planets also.
Blue Moon -- roadmonster.org
Psalm 19: The Heavens Declare the Glory of God, the Firmament Shows His Handiwork!
Psalm 19: The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his
handywork. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge.
is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to
the end of the world …....
The law of the LORD is perfect,
converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple.
statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes.
The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether.
More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey
and the honeycomb.
Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them
there is great reward.
Who can understand his errors? cleanse thou me from secret faults. Keep
back thy servant also from presumptuous sins; let them not have dominion over me: then shall I be upright, and I shall be
innocent from the great transgression.
Let the words of my mouth,
and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, O LORD, my strength, and my redeemer.
In Psalm 19, note that the heavens effectively speak to every person about God’s existence, glory and power.
Each person is encouraged to check out the Scriptures (Law of the Lord) which will lead to “converting
the soul,” and the combination of God’s revelations in Nature AND in Scripture leads the soul to joyful, true,
and devoted service to God.
Note that the Redeemer is mentioned in the last verse.
The New Testament tells us this is the Lord Jesus Christ. He is God’s only Savior.
Each human must embrace him and believe on him for salvation and to inherit eternal life.
must do this to be redeemed and go to heaven!
Secular scientists desperately try to explain the Moon’s origin, naturalistically.
Their theories are all foolish.
The only rational explanation is that Almighty
God really exists and created the moon, supernaturally, by his mighty power.
The Moon is Earth's only natural satellit and the fifth largest satellite in the Solar System. It is the largest natural satellite of
a planet in the Solar System relative to the size of its primary, a quarter the
diameter of Earth and 1⁄81 its mass (Charon is proportionally larger in
comparison to Pluto, but Pluto has been reclassified as a dwarf
The Moon is the second densest satellite after Io. It is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face;
the near side is marked with dark volcanic maria among the bright ancient crustal highlands and prominent impact craters.
It is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun,
although its surface is actually very dark, with a similar reflectance to coal. Its prominence in the sky and its regular
cycle of phases have since ancient times made the Moon an important cultural influence
on language, calendars, art and mythology.
Moon's gravitational influence produces the ocean tides and the minute
lengthening of the day. The Moon's current orbital distance, about thirty times the diameter of the
Earth, causes it to appear almost the same size in the sky as the Sun, allowing it to cover the Sun nearly precisely in total
The Moon is the only celestial body on which humans have landed. While
the Soviet Union's Luna programme
was the first to reach the Moon with unmanned spacecraft in 1959, the United States'
NASA Apollo program achieved the only
manned missions to date, beginning with the first manned lunar orbiting mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, and six manned lunar landings between 1969 and 1972—the first being Apollo
These missions returned over 380 kg of lunar
rocks, which have been used to develop a detailed geological understanding of the Moon's origins (it
is thought to have formed some 4.5 billion years ago in a giant impact event
involving Earth), the formation of its internal structure, and its
After the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by unmanned spacecraft, notably by the final Soviet Lunokhod rover. Since 2004,
Japan, China, India, the United States, and the European Space Agency have each
sent lunar orbiters.
These spacecraft have contributed to confirming the discovery of lunar water ice in permanently shadowed craters at the poles and bound into the lunar regolith. Future manned missions to the Moon have been planned, including government as well
as privately funded efforts.
The Moon remains, under the Outer Space Treaty, free to all nations to explore for peaceful purposes.